The conversion of xylose to ethanol is vital for second generation biofuel production. Microbiogen Pty Ltd have have successfully evolved a Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker’s yeast) strain that grows efficiently on xylose as a sole carbon source. This is a novel metabolic activity, absent from its parents and wild yeast strains. A suite of sequencing technologies and approaches have been applied to identify the genes and mutations involved in the evolution of this trait: PacBio whole genome sequencing, comparative genomics, RNA-Seq transcriptomics, and competition assays. This seminar will explore the bioinformatics challenges and opportunities of applying and combining these different technologies to complex genetic systems. Through deep Illumina resequencing of evolving populations, and assembling reliable complete genomes of the founding ancestors, the ultimate goal is to trace how mutations have interacted with existing genetic variation during adaptive evolution.